Stephen Barrett Levine (born January 14, 1942) is an American psychiatrist and anti-transgender activist.


Levine earned his bachelor’s degree from Washington and Jefferson College in 1963 and his medical degree from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in 1967. He did his psychiatric internship and residency at University Hospitals of Cleveland. He worked in that hospital’s Sexual Dysfunction Clinic. In 1993 the clinic separated from University Hospitals to become The Center for Marital and Sexual Health (now called DELR).

Levine was appointed professor at Case Western in 1973, earning tenure in 1982. Among many honors, he was named a Distinguished Life Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 2005.

HBIGDA Standards of Care (1998)

Levine joined both the International Academy of Sex Research and the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association (now WPATH) in 1983. He served as Chair the Standards of Care Committee that published Version 5 in 1998. That version is notable for being the last one to include the disease “autogynephilia.” Among the people involved in that revision were:

Committee Members

  • Stephen B. Levine (Chair)
  • George R. Brown
  • Eli Coleman
  • Peggy Cohen-Kittenis
  • Joris Hage
  • Judy Van Maasdam
  • Maxine Petersen
  • Friedemann Pfäfflin
  • Leah Schaefer


Among this group are a number of enthusiastic believers in “two-type” taxonomies

Levine’s work has been heavily influenced by “autogynephilia” proponents and activists including:


  • Transitioning back to maleness (2018)
  • Ethical Concerns About Emerging Treatment Paradigms for Gender Dysphoria (2017)
  • What is More Bizarre: The Transsexual or Transsexual Politics? (2014)
  • Meanings and political implications of “psychopathology” in a gender identity clinic: A report of 10 cases (2009)
  • Reintroduction to clinical sexuality (2005)
  • The standards of care for gender identity disorders (1998)
  • Gender-disturbed males (1993)
  • Interim report of the DSM-IV subcommittee on gender identity disorders 1991
  • Transsexualism or the gender dysphoria syndromes (1981)
  • Expressive psychotherapy with gender dysphoric patients (1981)
  • Psychiatric diagnosis of patients requesting sex reassignment surgery (1980)



  • Stephen B. Levine CV (PDF)