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Stephen B. Levine vs. transgender people

Stephen B. Levine is an American psychiatrist and anti-transgender activist.

Levine is frequently paid as an expert witness to deny gender affirming healthcare to trans and gender-diverse youth and to transgender prisoners.


Stephen Barrett Levine was born January 14, 1942.

Levine earned a bachelor’s degree from Washington and Jefferson College in 1963 and a medical degree from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in 1967. Levine did a psychiatric internship and residency at University Hospitals of Cleveland, working in that hospital’s Sexual Dysfunction Clinic. In 1993 the clinic separated from University Hospitals to become The Center for Marital and Sexual Health (now called DELR).

Levine was appointed professor at Case Western in 1973, earning tenure in 1982. Among many honors, Levine was named a Distinguished Life Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 2005.

HBIGDA Standards of Care (1998)

Levine joined both the International Academy of Sex Research and the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association (now WPATH) in 1983. Levine served as Chair of the Standards of Care Committee that published Version 5 in 1998. That version is notable for being the last one to include the disease “autogynephilia.” Among the people involved in that revision were:

Committee Members


Among this group are a number of enthusiastic believers in “two-type” taxonomies. Levine’s work has been heavily influenced by “autogynephilia” activists including Kurt Freund and Kenneth Zucker.

Attacks on youth healthcare

Levine considers these 13 statements to be false.

  • A Trans Identity is immutable and unchanging
  • A Trans Identity is rooted in biology
  • Gender Identity has no connection to sexual orientation
  • No form of Gender Identity is a symptom of something else
  • Gender dysphoria is a serious medical condition requiring intervention or not
  • Associated emotional problems are due to discrimination
  • There are no effective alternatives to affirmative care
  • Exploratory psychotherapy is conversion therapy
  • Affirmative Care improves mental health and social function in the long term
  • Affirmative Care prevents suicide
  • Teens know whats best for themselves
  • Meeting diagnostic criteria for gender dysphoria predicts good outcome
  • Regret and detransition are rare

Selected testimony by Levine

Levine SB March 12, 2020 Pennsylvania EXPERT SUBMISSION OF DR. STEPHEN B. LEVINE, M.D.

Selected publications by Levine

Abbruzzese E, Levine SB, Mason JW (2023). The Myth of “Reliable Research” in Pediatric Gender Medicine: A critical evaluation of the Dutch Studies-and research that has followed. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 2023 Jan 2:1-27.

Levine SB, Abbruzzese E, Mason JW (2022). Reconsidering Informed Consent for Trans-Identified Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 48;7

Levine SB, Abbruzzese E, Mason JW (2023). What Are We Doing to These Children? Response to Drescher, Clayton, and Balon Commentaries on Levine et al., 2022. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 2023;49(1):115-125.

Levine SB (2021). Reflections on the Clinician’s Role with Individuals Who Self-identify as Transgender. Archives of Sexual Behavior 2021 Nov;50(8):3527-3536.

Levine SB (2018). Transitioning back to maleness. Archives of Sexual Behavior 2018 May;47(4):1295-1300.

Levine SB (2019). Informed Consent for Transgendered Patients. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 2019;45(3):218-229.

Levine SB (2018). Ethical Concerns About Emerging Treatment Paradigms for Gender Dysphoria. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 2018 Jan 2;44(1):29-44.

Levine SB (2016). Reflections on the Legal Battles Over Prisoners with Gender Dysphoria. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2016 Jun;44(2):236-45.

Levine SB (2014). What is More Bizarre: The Transsexual or Transsexual Politics? Sex Roles volume 70, pages158–160

Levine SB, Solomon A (2009). Meanings and political implications of “psychopathology” in a gender identity clinic: A report of 10 cases. J Sex Marital Ther . 2009;35(1):40-57. hrttps://

Levine SB (2009). Adolescent consent and confidentiality. Pediatr Rev. 2009 Nov;30(11):457-9.

Levine SB (2005). Reintroduction to clinical sexuality. Focus 3;4 pp. 526-531

Segraves RT, Levine SB (section editors) Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders. In Gabbard GO, ed. (2001). Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders. ISBN 978-0880489119

The standards of care for gender identity disorders (1998)

Gender-disturbed males (1993)

Interim report of the DSM-IV subcommittee on gender identity disorders 1991

Transsexualism or the gender dysphoria syndromes (1981)

Expressive psychotherapy with gender dysphoric patients (1981)

Psychiatric diagnosis of patients requesting sex reassignment surgery (1980)

Selected media appearances

Levine frequently appears in conservative and anti-transgender media.

Levine SB (March 12, 2020). 2020 Penn Hearings on Adolescent Transgender Care – Dr. Stephen Levine Presentation and Q&A.

Levine SB (February 21, 2023). 13 Untruths Behind Gender Affirmative Therapies for Kids. Florida House Health & Human Services Committee

Stella O’Malley and Sasha Ayad (January 27, 2022). EPISODE 60 – Pioneers Series: We Contain Multitudes with Stephen Levine. Gender: A Wider Lens

Stella O’Malley and Sasha Ayad (May 19, 2023). EP 114: The Dutch Protocol: A Deprivation of Sexual Development with Julia Mason and Stephen Levine. Gender: A Wider Lens

Smith, Wesley J. (May 22, 2023). Stephen B. Levine M.D. on the Science of Gender-Affirming Care. Discovery Institute


Redden, Molly (September 15, 2023). Inside The Cottage Industry Of ‘Experts’ Paid To Defend Anti-Trans Laws. HuffPost

Stahl, Aviva (July 8, 2021). Prisoners, Doctors, and the Battle Over Trans Medical CareWIRED

Mobley, Andrew; Lepenski, Brenda (November 28, 2022). Arkansas trial on transgender treatment for children; new testimony from doctor MondayKATV.



  • Stephen B. Levine CV (PDF)

Wikipedia (