Isaac Marks is a South African psychiatrist who performed electroshock and other forms of aversion to “cure” transgender people. He collaborated with psychiatrists John Bancroft and Richard Green.


Isaac Meyer Marks was born February 16, 1935 in Cape Town, South Africa. He met John Bancroft soon after he arrived in the United Kingdom in 1960.

He earned his medical degree and a diploma in psychological medicine from University of Cape Town in 1973. He married historian Shula Eta Winkour Marks in 1957 and had two children.


 David H. Russell, ‘Skellern, (Flora) Eileen (1923–1980)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004

Marks IM, Gelder MG (1967). Transvestism and fetishism: Clinical and psychological changes during faradic aversion. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 113(500), 711–729.

Bancroft JHJ, Marks I (1968). “Treatment of Sexual Deviations.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. 61 (8): 796–799. doi: 10.1177/003591576806100827.

Marks I, Gelder M, Bancroft JHJ (1970). Sexual deviants two years after electric aversion. The British Journal of Psychiatry 1970 -1970 Aug;117(537):173-85.

Marks I, Mataix-Cols D (1997). Four-year remission of transsexualism after comorbid obsessive- compulsive disorder improved with self-exposure therapy. Case report. The British Journal of Psychiatry , Volume 171 , Issue 4 , October 1997 , pp. 389 – 390

Marks I, Green R, Mataix-Cols D (2000). Adult gender identity disorder can remit. Comprehensive Psychiatry 41(4):273-5. doi:10.1053/comp.2000.7424

Gelder M, Marks I (). “Aversion Treatment in Transvestism

Marks, Isaac, Michael Gelder, John Bancroft, and Maureen O’Neill, ‘Sexual Deviants Two Years after Electric Aversion’, …and Transsexualism”. In Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment.


Living with Fear: Understanding and Coping with Anxiety (1978) ISBN 0-07-040396-1

Cure and Care of Neuroses (1988) ISBN 0-88048-162-5

The Practice of Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy (foreword) (1991) ISBN 0-521-41741-4

Hands-on Help: Computer-aided Psychotherapy (2007) ISBN 978-1-84169-679-9

Fears, Phobias, and Rituals: Panic, Anxiety, and Their Disorders (1987) ISBN 0-19-503927-0


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