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John Money vs. sex and gender minorities

John Money (1921–2006) was a New Zealand psychologist and sex researcher known for many ethical controversies:

the Reimer twins scandal (the “John/Joan case”)

  • ordering surgical sex reassignment on 22-month-old infant David Reimer (1967)
  • posing the Reimer twins in simulated sex acts and photographing it
  • falsifying and covering up the outcome of the case
  • contributing to the adult suicides of both brothers (Brian in 2002, David in 2004)

exploiting people with differences of sex development

  • Hermaphroditism: An Inquiry into the Nature of a Human Paradox (1952)

coining or popularizing numerous terms and concepts:

  • gender role (1955)
  • gender identity (orginally proposed by Robert Stoller in 1964)
  • sexual orientation
  • amative orientation (2002)
  • paraphilia (Krauss 1903; Robinson 1913; Stekel 1930)
  • lovemaps (1986)
    • vandalized lovemaps (1989)
  • gendermaps (1995)
  • bodymind (1988)

outlining variables of sex (1955):

  • assigned sex and sex of rearing
  • external genital morphology
  • internal reproductive structures
  • hormonal and secondary sex characteristics
  • gonadal sex
  • chromosomal sex
  • gender role and orientation as male or female, established while growing up

making biased claims about trans women:

  • Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment (1969)
  • “devious, demanding and manipulative” and incapable of love (1970)

John Money should have died in prison along with other “leading lights” of late 20th-century sexology. The astonishing lack of accountability or responsibility makes him easily the most unethical sexologist in history.

John Money vs. J. Michael Bailey

Takes one to know one, they say.

John Money was an ethically-challenged sexologist at Johns Hopkins whose work led to the woes of untold intersex people around the world until his “science” was debunked and his academic misconduct exposed.

Mike Bailey is an ethically-challenged sexologist at Northwestern whose work nearly led to the woes of untold transgender people around the world until his “science” was debunked and his academic misconduct exposed.

John Money put out a book in May 1990 with the title:

Gay, Straight, and In-Between

Mike Bailey’s publicist did an article in March 2003 titled:

Gay, Straight or Lying? Science has the answer [1]

The similarities in titles certainly beg a comparison, as do the remarkable similarities in the lives of the two well-known sexologists.

Why would Bailey and friends replace “in-between” with “lying”? Below is a very interesting passage from pages 108-110 of John Money’s Gay, Straight, and In-Between: The Sexology of Exotic Orientation.

“Gender Crosscoding”

by John Money

Among adolescents who circumvent homosexual activity or who quit in panic, there are some who coerce themselves into heterosexuality, only to find as husbands and fathers (or wives and mothers, in the case of females) that the lid on Pandora’s box springs open. These are the people who, when young adulthood advances into midlife, begin the homosexual stage of sequential bisexuality. For some the transition is to homosexual relations exclusively, whereas for others heterosexual relations also may continue. The transition may take place autonomously, or it may be a sequel to the divorce or death of the spouse or to sexual apathy in the marriage. When the youngest child leaves home, there may be a degree of freedom hitherto unavailable. The bisexualism of a parent is not transmitted to the offspring, and is not contagious. However, to avoid offending a heterosexual child, a bisexual parent may be self-coerced into suppressing homosexual expression.

The late expression of homosexuality in sequential bisexuality may be associated with recovery from illness and debilitation (e.g., recovery from alcoholism) that had masked the homosexual potential. Hypothetically, it might, conversely, be associated with premature illness and deterioration from brain injury or disease, as in temporal lobe trauma and Alzheimer’s disease. However, although brain pathology may release the expression of sexuality formerly strictly self-prohibited as indecent or immoral, it is not especially associated with releasing bisexuality.

In sequential bisexuality, the transition from homosexual to heterosexual expression is also known to occur autonomously in adulthood. Since this transition is socially approved and not registered as pathological, it is not likely to be recorded. If the individual were at the time in some type of treatment, the transition might be wrongly construed as a therapeutic triumph.

More than sequential bisexuality, concurrent bisexuality may be jocularly considered as having the best of two possible worlds. But it has a dark and sinister potential also. Its most malignant expression is in those individuals in whom it takes the form of a Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. The split applies not simply to heterosexuality and homosexuality, but to good and evil, licit and illicit, as well. The two names are not gender-coded as male and female as they are in the two names of the tranvsvestophile, nor are the two personalities and the two wardrobes. Instead, the two names, wardrobes, and personalities are both male (or in the less likely case of women, female), but one, the given name with its wardrobe and personality, is for the heterosexual, and the other, an alias or a nickname, for the homosexual. The heterosexual personality is the servant of righteousness and the acolyte of a vengeful God. The homosexual personality is the servant of transgression and a fallen angel in the legions of Lucifer. The heterosexual personality has the pontificating mission of a sadistic grand inquisitor, bent on the exorcism of those possessed of homosexuality, himself included. The homosexual personality has the absolving mission of officiating indulgences in the place of masochistic penances for homosexuality, but only for himself and nobody else.

The absolute antithesis of homophobia and homophilia in this malignant form of bisexuality takes its toll in self-sabotage and the sabotage of others. Self-sabotage is an ever-present threat that materializes if there is a leakage of information from those in one antithetical world to those in the other. The greater danger is, of course, that knowledge of the illicit homosexual existence will leak out to the society that knows only of the heterosexual existence. The ensuing societal abuse and deprivation, legal and social, may be extreme.

The sabotage of others is carried out professionally by some individuals with the syndrome of malignant bisexualism. Their internal homophobic war against their own homosexuality becomes externalized into a war against homosexuality in others. The malignant bisexual becomes a secret agent, living in his own private and secret homosexual world, while spying on its inhabitants, entrapping them, assaulting and killing them, or, with less overt violence, preaching against them, legislating against them, or judicially depriving them of the right to exist.

The malignant bisexual is the perfect recruit for the position of homosexual entrapment officer or decoy in the employ of the police vice squad. Supported by clandestine operations, blackmail, and threats of exposure, in espionage or in the secret police of government surveillance, he may achieve legendary power, such as that attributed to J. Edgar Hoover of mythical FBI fame.

People in high places may have the power to keep under cover for a lifetime, with the homosexual manifestations of their bisexuality never exposed. Others have their career blown, as did the bisexual former U.S. congressman from Maryland, Robert E. Bauman, a fanatical homophobic ultraconservative of the religious new right, who subsequently published a biography of his own downfall (Bauman 1986).

Bauman was exposed by a combination of surveillance and the testimony of a paid informant and blackmailer. Nowadays there is a hitherto nonexistent way of being suspected or exposed, namely by dying of AIDS. This is what happened to Roy Cohn (New York Times, August 3, 1986), the malignantly bisexual legal counsel for the homosexual witch hunter from Wisconsin, U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy, himself suspected of malignant bisexuality. Together, they destroyed the lives of many American citizens, simply by publicly accusing them of being homosexual, falsely or otherwise.

Scratch the surface of the self-righteous and find the devil. This is a maxim of widespread acceptability, not only to the self-righteous in high places of homophobic power, influence, and authority, but also to the homophobic, gay-bashing hoodlums who, as in the case with which this section began, pick up or are picked up by a gay man, have sex with him, and then exorcise their own homosexual guilt by assaulting and maybe killing him. Both versions of homophobia are manifestations of malignant bisexuality that, in an interview with the journalist, Doug Ireland, for New York Magazine (July 24, 1978), I called the exorcist syndrome.

There must be a very widespread prevalence of lesser degrees of the exorcist syndrome in the population at large. If it were not so, otherwise-decent people would not persecute their homosexual fellow citizens nor tolerate their persecution. Instead they would live and let live those who are destined to have a different way of being human in love and sex. They would tolerate them as they do the left-handed. Tolerance would remove those very pressures that progressively coerce increasing numbers of our children and grandchildren to grow up blighted with the curse of malignant bisexuality.


1. Pinnel, Robin (March 21, 2003). Gay, straight, or lying? Science has the answer. Joseph Henry Press

Bullough, Vern L. “The contributions of John Money: a personal view.” The Journal of Sex Research, vol. 40, no. 3, 2003, pp. 230–236.

John Money and John G. Brennan, “Heterosexual vs. homosexual attitudes: male partners’ perception of the feminine image of male transsexuals,” The Journal of Sex Research, 6, 3 (1970): 193–209, 201, 202.

John Money, John L. Hampson, Joan G. Hampson. Hermaphroditism: Psychology & Case Management April 1, 1960

Ehrhardt, Anke A. ‘John Money, PhD’ Journal of Sex Research 44.3 (2007): 223–224.

Downing, Lisa; Morland, Iain; Sullivan, Nikki (26 November 2014). Fuckology: Critical Essays on John Money’s Diagnostic ConceptsChicago, IllinoisUniversity of Chicago Press.

Goldie, Terry (2014). The Man Who Invented Gender: Engaging the Ideas of John Money. Vancouver, British Columbia: University of British Columbia Press.

Tosh, Jemma (25 July 2014). Perverse Psychology: The pathologization of sexual violence and transgenderism. Routledge. ISBN 9781317635444.

Diamond, M; Sigmundson, HK (1997). “Sex reassignment at birth. Long-term review and clinical implications”Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine151 (3): 298–304. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1997.02170400084015

John William Money, PhD, 1921–2006

Brewington, Kelly (9 July 2006). “Dr. John Money 1921–2006: Hopkins pioneer in gender identity”Baltimore Sun.

Money, John; Hampson, Joan G; Hampson, John (October 1955). “An Examination of Some Basic Sexual Concepts: The Evidence of Human Hermaphroditism”. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Johns Hopkins University. 97 (4): 301–19. PMID 13260820.

Colapinto, John (11 December 1997). “The True Story of John/Joan”Rolling Stone: 54–97. Archived from the original on 15 August 2000. Retrieved 27 September 2014.

“David Reimer, 38, Subject of the John/Joan Case”The New York Times. 12 May 2004. Retrieved 27 September 2014.

Carey, Benedict (11 July 2006). John William Money, 84, Sexual Identity Researcher, DiesThe New York Times

John Money, Ph.D. Kinsey Institute

Man and woman, boy and girl: Differentiation and dimorphism of gender identity from conception to maturity.

J Money, AA Ehrhardt – 1972 

Imprinting and the establishment of gender role

J Money, JG Hampson… – AMA Archives of Neurology …, 1957 

Sexual signatures: On being a man or a woman.

J Money, P Tucker – 1975 –

 Gay, straight, and in-between: The sexology of erotic orientation

J Money – 1988 – 

Lovemaps: Clinical concepts of sexual/erotic health and pathology, paraphilia, and gender transposition in childhood, adolescence, and maturity

Money – 2012 

Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome: long-term medical, surgical, and psychosexual outcome

…, GD Berkovitz, TR Brown, J Money – The Journal of …, 2000 –

Ablatio penis: normal male infant sex-reassigned as a girl

Money – Archives of sexual behavior, 1975 –

The concept of gender identity disorder in childhood and adolescence after 39 years

Money – Journal of sex & marital therapy, 1994 –

Ambiguous genitalia with perineoscrotal hypospadias in 46, XY individuals: long-term medical, surgical, and psychosexual outcome

…, TR Brown, SJ Casella, A Maret, KM Ngai, J Money… – Pediatrics, 2002 

Adult erotosexual status and fetal hormonal masculinization and demasculinization: 46, XX congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia and 46, XY androgen-insensitivity …

Money, M Schwartz, VG Lewis – Psychoneuroendocrinology, 1984 – 

Apotemnophilia: two cases of self‐demand amputation as a paraphilia

Money, R Jobaris, G Furth – Journal of Sex Research, 1977

Paraphilias: Phenomenology and classification

Money – American journal of psychotherapy, 1984 

Gender role, gender identity, core gender identity: Usage and definition of terms

Money – Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 1973 

Forensic sexology: Paraphilic serial rape (biastophilia) and lust murder (erotophonophilia)

Money – American Journal of Psychotherapy, 1990 

Progestin‐induced hermaphroditism: IQ and psychosexual identity in a study of ten girls∗

AA Ehrhardt, J Money – Journal of Sex Research, 1967 – 

Sin, sickness, or status? Homosexual gender identity and psychoneuroendocrinology.

J Money – American Psychologist, 1987 –

Sex errors of the body: Dilemmas, education, counseling.

J Money – 1968 –

Homosexual outcome of discordant gender identity/role in childhood: Longitudinal follow-up

J Money, AJ Russo – Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 1979 

Gendermaps: Social constructionism, feminism and sexosophical history

J Money – 2016 

Sex errors of the body and related syndromes: A guide to counseling children, adolescents, and their families

J Money – 1994 – 

Gender: history, theory and usage of the term in sexology and its relationship to nature/nurture

J Money – Journal of sex & marital therapy, 1985 

Use of an androgen‐depleting hormone in the treatment of male sex offenders

J Money – Journal of Sex Research, 1970 –

Vandalized lovemaps: Paraphilic outcome of seven cases in pediatric sexology.

J Money, M Lamacz – 1989 – 

Sex research: New developments.

JE Money – 1965 

46, XY intersex individuals: phenotypic and etiologic classification, knowledge of condition, and satisfaction with knowledge in adulthood

…, JA Rock, HFL Meyer-Bahlburg, J Money… – Pediatrics, 2002 

Incongruous gender role: nongenital manifestations in prepubertal boys.

R Green, J Money – Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1960 –

Fetal feminization and female gender identity in the testicular feminizing syndrome of androgen insensitivity

DN Masica, J Money, AA Ehrhardt – Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1971

Sexual dimorphism and homosexual gender identity.

J Money – Psychological Bulletin, 1970 –

Iatrogenic homosexuality: Gender identity in seven 46, XX chromosomal females with hyperadrenocortical hermaphroditism born with a penis, three reared as boys …

J Money, J Dalery – Journal of Homosexuality, 1976 

Effeminacy in prepubertal boys: Summary of eleven cases and recommendations for case management

R Green, J Money – Pediatrics, 1961 – 

Hermaphrodism: recommendations concerning case management

JG Hampson, J Money… – The Journal of Clinical …, 1956 –

Sexual dimorphism and dissociation in the psychology of male transsexuals.

J Money, C Primrose – Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1968 –

Gynemimesis and gynemimetophilia: Individual and cross-cultural manifestations of a gender-coping strategy hitherto unnamed

J Money, M Lamacz – Comprehensive psychiatry, 1984 

Genital examination and exposure experienced as nosocomial sexual abuse in childhood.

J Money, M Lamacz – Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1987 

Stage-acting, role-taking, and effeminate impersonation during boyhood

R Green, J Money – Archives of General Psychiatry, 1966