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Betty Steiner vs. transgender people

Betty Wilson Steiner-Conduit (1920 – February 16, 1994) was a Canadian psychiatrist. Steiner was the first head of the Gender Identity Clinic at Toronto’s notorious Clarke Institute of Psychiatry


After completing education in 1958, Steiner was appointed psychiatrist at the Women’s College Hospital, then took the appointment at the Clarke Institute in 1968.

Steiner was named a Fellow of The Royal College of Physicians of Canada – FRCP(C). Steiner-Conduit married marketing executive Andrew Conduit in 1988. Both died in 1994 of carbon monoxide poisoning after leaving a car running in their garage. Steiner-Conduit was declared dead at the scene; Andrew Conduit died ten days later.

Books on gender

In 1985 Steiner edited Gender Dysphoria.

Steiner and Ray Blanchard co-authored the 1990 book Clinical Management of Gender Identity Disorders In Children And Adults.

TransEqual notes that this book is “where most of the oppression suffered by Canadian transsexuals comes from… Clinical Management provides an in depth look at the beliefs and policies of the Clarke’s Gender Identity Clinic, including considerable information about the ‘disorder model’ of transgender identity.”


Blanchard R, Steiner BW (eds.) (1990). Clinical management of gender identity disorders in children and adults. American Psychiatric Press, ISBN 978-0-88048-187-8

Blanchard R, Steiner BW, Clemmensen LH, Dickey R (1989). Prediction of regrets in postoperative transsexuals. Can J Psychiatry. 1989 Feb;34(1):43-5.PMID 2924248

Blanchard R, Clemmensen LH, Steiner BW (1987). Heterosexual and homosexual gender dysphoria. Arch Sex Behav. 1987 Apr;16(2):139-52. PMID 3592961

Blanchard R, Rachansky I, Steiner B (1986). Phallometric detection of fetishistic arousal in heterosexual male cross-dressers. Journal of Sex Research, 22, 1986: 452-462.

Blanchard R, Clemmensen LH, Steiner BW (1985). Social desirability response set and systematic distortion in the self-report of adult male gender patients. Arch Sex Behav. 1985 Dec;14(6):505-16. PMID 4084050

Steiner BW (ed.) (1985) Gender dysphoria: development, research, management. Plenum Press, ISBN 978-0-306-41694-1

Blanchard R, Steiner BW, Clemmensen LH (1985). Gender dysphoria, gender reorientation, and the clinical management of transsexualism. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1985 Jun;53(3):295-304. PMID 4008715

Blanchard R, McConkey JG, Roper V, Steiner BW (1983). Measuring physical aggressiveness in heterosexual, homosexual, and transsexual males. Arch Sex Behav. 1983 Dec;12(6):511-24. PMID 6667110

Blanchard R, Clemmensen LH, Steiner BW (1983). Gender reorientation and psychosocial adjustment in male-to-female transsexuals. Arch Sex Behav. 1983 Dec;12(6):503-9. PMID 6667109

Freund K, Steiner BW, Chan S (1982). Two types of cross-gender identity. Arch Sex Behav. 1982 Feb;11(1):49-63. PMID 7073469

Steiner BW (1981). From Sappho to Stand: historical perspective on crossdressing and cross gender. Can J Psychiatry. 1981 Nov;26(7):502-6. PMID 702824

Steiner BW, Bernstein SM (1981). Female-to-male transsexuals and their partners. Can J Psychiatry. 1981 Apr;26(3):178-82. PMID 7237357

Bernstein SM, Steiner BW, Glaister JT, Muir CF (1981). Changes in patients with gender-identity problems after parental death. Am J Psychiatry. 1981 Jan;138(1):41-5. PMID 7446780

Steiner BW, Satterberg JA, Muir CF (1978). Flight into femininity. The male menopause? Can Psychiatr Assoc J. 1978 Oct;23(6):405-10. PMID 709491

Bradley SJ, Steiner B, Zucker K, Doering RW, Sullivan J, Finegan JK, Richardson M (1978). Gender identity problems of children and adolescents: the establishment of a special clinic. Can Psychiatr Assoc J. 1978 Apr;23(3):175-83. PMID 647617

Freund K, Langevin R, Satterberg J, Steiner B (1977). Extension of the Gender Identity Scale for Males. Arch Sex Behav. 1977 Nov;6(6):507-19. PMID 931627

Langevin R, Paitich D, Steiner B (1977). The clinical profile of male transsexuals living as females vs. those living as males. Arch Sex Behav. 1977 Mar;6(2):143-54. PMID 849139

Nelson C, Paitich D, Steiner BW (1976). Medicolegal aspects of transsexualism. Can Psychiatr Assoc J. 1976 Dec;21(8):557-64. PMID 1024695

Garfinkel PE, Steiner BW, Hunter RC (1974). The processes of psychiatric residency training. II. Trainees who drop out. Can Psychiatr Assoc J. 1974 Apr;19(2):201-6. PMID 4829419

Steiner BW, Garfinkel PE, Hunter RC (1974). The processes of psychiatric residency training. I. Selection of trainees and the outcome of training. Can Psychiatr Assoc J. 1974 Apr;19(2):193-200. PMID 4829418

Freund K, Nagler E, Langevin R, Zajac A, Steiner B (1974). Measuring feminine gender identity in homosexual males. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 3, 1974: 249-260. PMID 4836843

Freund K, Langevin R, Zajac Y, Steiner B, Zajac A (1974). Parent-child relations in transsexual and non-transsexual homosexual males. Br J Psychiatry. 1974 Jan;124(578):22-3. PMID 4822411

Freund K, Langevin R, Zajac Y, Steiner B, Zajac A (1974). The trans-sexual syndrome in homosexual males.J Nerv Ment Dis. 1974 Feb;158(2):145-53. PMID 4813925

Steiner BW, Zajac AS, Mohr JW (1974). A gender identity project. The organization of a multidisciplinary study. Can Psychiatr Assoc J. 1974 Feb;19(1):7-12. PMID 4812981

Steiner BW (1973). The crisis of middle age. Can Med Assoc J. 1973 Nov 17;109(10):1017-8 passim. PMID 4758860


Haworth, Eric (May 9, 1963). The bright promise of the professions. The Woman’s Globe and Mail section of The Globe and Mail

Central Press Association (February 17, 1968). Doctor discusses abortions. The Calgary Herald

Kirkwood, Leone (January 27, 1973). Work described with children having 2 sexes. The Globe and Mail

Millar, Cal (February 17, 1994). Fumes kill psychiatrist, husband clings to life. Car left running in garage of Rosedale home. Toronto Star

Millar, Cal (February 26, 1994). Car-fumes accident claims second life. Toronto Star

Barnes, Alan (March 3, 1994). Andrew Conduit, 80, held top post at Reader’s Digest. Toronto Star

Zagria (September 11, 2010). Betty Steiner (1920 – 1994) psychiatrist.


Wikipedia (