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Janice Raymond vs. transgender people

Janice Raymond is an American author, ethicist, and activist whose work is foundational to the modern gender critical anti-transgender movement.

Raymond’s 1979 book The Transsexual Empire lays out her argument that “All transsexuals rape women’s bodies by reducing the real female form to an artifact, appropriating this body for themselves […] Transsexuals merely cut off the most obvious means of invading women, so that they seem non-invasive.”

Author Sandy Stone was directly attacked by name throughout Raymond’s book. Stone’s 1983 response: “The Empire Strikes Back,” is a foundational text in the field of transgender studies and a turning point in the transgender rights movement.


Janice Raymond (

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Harvard University Library Archives (